美国科学家发现核废料清...

2018-05-22 14:46| 发布者: | 查看: |

华盛顿州立大学一项有关锝-99的化学研究,提拔了我们对这种具有挑衅性的核废料的认知,而且会让我们找到更好的清算方法。

研究结果发表在《无机化学》期刊上。这项工作是在机器与质料工程学院副传授约翰 麦克洛伊与化学系研究生杰米 韦弗的向导下完成的。而且与平静洋西北国家实行室(PNNL),河道掩护办公室、劳伦斯伯克利国家实行室的研究职员举行了互助研究。

锝-99是武器级钚生产的副产物,它被以为是美国情况净化的重要挑衅。位于华盛顿州的汉福德核办法,约莫有2000磅的元素分散在177个储罐约莫5600万加仑的核废料里。

美国能源部正在汉福德建立废物处置惩罚厂,想要将伤害核废料固定在玻璃中。但研究职员不停没有乐成,由于不是全部的锝-99都能纳入到玻璃容器中,挥发性气体也必须被接纳到熔化体系里。

该元素易溶于水,当以某些形态存在时,很轻易在情况中流转,因此它被以为是一个庞大的情况危害。

由于从事锝化合物研究是一项难度很大的工作,以是早期研究利用不易挥发的替换品来研究这种质料的特性。已经有50年时间,没有人研究锝的一些化合物,麦克洛伊说,“该质料的物流管理过程难度相称大,”他说。

华盛顿州立大学的研究是在平静洋西北国家实行室的高度专业化的放射化学处置惩罚实行室及情况分子科学实行室内完成的。

研究职员举行了底子化学实行,相识锝-99的特性及其存储方面的独特挑衅。他们确定元素的钠形态相比于其他碱形态,体现出很大差别,这大概是与其挥发性相干,也与为什么它易于和水发生反应相干。

“这类化合物的布局和光谱特性,有助于我们加深将锝注入核废料玻璃容器的明白,”麦克洛伊说。

研究职员也盼望这项工作将有助于对其他生疏化合物的研究。(张微编译)

以下为英文原文:

Researchers find new clues for nuclear waste cleanup

A Washington State University study of the chemistry of technetium-99 has improved understanding of the challenging nuclear waste and could lead to better cleanup methods.

The work is reported in the journal Inorganic Chemistry. It was led by John McCloy, associate professor in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, and chemistry graduate student Jamie Weaver. Researchers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the Office of River Protection and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory collaborated.

Technetium-99 is a byproduct of plutonium weapons production and is considered a major U.S. challenge for environmental cleanup. At the Hanford Site nuclear complex in Washington state, there are about 2,000 pounds of the element dispersed within approximately 56 million gallons of nuclear waste in 177 storage tanks.

The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of building a waste treatment plant at Hanford to immobilize hazardous nuclear waste in glass. But researchers have been stymied because not all the technetium-99 is incorporated into the glass and volatilized gas must be recycled back into the melter system.

The element can be very soluble in water and moves easily through the environment when in certain forms, so it is considered a significant environmental hazard.

Because technetium compounds are challenging to work with, earlier research has used less volatile substitutes to try to understand the material's behavior. Some of the compounds themselves have not been studied for 50 years, said McCloy."The logistics are very challenging," he said.

The WSU work was done in PNNL's highly specialized Radiochemical Processing Laboratory and the radiological annex of its Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

The researchers conducted fundamental chemistry tests to better understand technetium-99 and its unique challenges for storage. They determined that the sodium forms of the element behave much differently than other alkalis, which possibly is related to its volatility and to why it may be so reactive with water.

"The structure and spectral signatures of these compounds will aid in refining the understanding of technetium incorporation into nuclear waste glasses," said McCloy.

The researchers also hope the work will contribute to the study of other poorly understood chemical compounds.


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